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Dari Nusa Jawa: Silang Budaya -Denys Lombard

Berikut adalah petilan dari karya ensiklopedik Denys Lombard, Nusa Jawa: Silang Budaya- Bagian III Warisan Kerajaan-Kerajaan Konsentris (Gramedia, 1993) yang mengulas Alun-alun Yogyakarta dalam kaitannya dengan denah kota  dan dalam perbandingannya yang ulak-alik dengan Alun-alun Solo. Narasi sengaja disampaikan di sini memang disampaikan terpotong-potong untuk berfokus pada penjelasan yang terkait khusus pada Alun-alun Yogyakarta.

Kota Sebagai Mandala (hal 108-118)

Usaha klasifikasi sekaligus pembagian dan penertiban palingtampak di pusat, terutama pada denah ibukota yang dirancang seperti mandala, yaitu sejenis maket kosmos. Seperti di Xian, di Kyoto, di Angkor – tetapi sesuai juga dengan prinsip- prinsip naskah-naskah Sanskreta kuno Vastu Sastra – denah itu berpedoman pada keempat arah mata angin dan diatur menurut dua poros besar yang saling memotong dengan tegak lurus, yang pada umumnya menghasilkan susunan “tapak catur”. Di jantung kota berdiri istana yang merupakan intinya; kota hanyalah bungkusnya.[…]

Di Yogyakarta pertumbuhan kota lebih simetris, berkat kedua aliran Kali Winongo dan Kali Code yang arahnya hampir sejajar dari utara ke selatan, yang satu di sebelah barat, yang lain di sebelah timur. Daerah-daerah pemukiman dibangun bersebelahan dengan poros besar utara-selatan yang, setelah melintasi istana dari ujung ke ujung dan alun-alun utara (B pada peta 43), berlanjut sampai ke Jalan Malioboro sampai ke Tugu.[…]


Di Surakarta maupun di Yogya, daerah kediaman para bangsawan menempati satu kawasan bersisi empat yang luas, yang dikelilingi oleh tembok tinggi 3 sampai 6 meter, yang di Yogya dinamakan beteng […] Ruang bertembok itu berada di antara dua alun-alun bujur sangkar yang luas, alun-alun utara dan selatan (lor dan kidul)[…]

Masing-masing keraton diatur sesuai dengan dua poros: yang satu, sisi utara-selatan, menentukan ruang umum, resmi, tempat upacara; yang lain, sepanjang barat ke timur, menentukan ruang pribadi, akrab, keramat. Poros pertamalah yang paling nyata karena menghubungkan alun-alun alun utara dengan alun-alun selatan melalui tujuh halaman berturut-turut yang saling berhubungan lewat pintu gerbang. Pintu-pintu gerbang itu besar sekali dan nama-namanya sepadan dua-dua, dari luar ke dalam. Kalau masuk dari utara atau dari selatan, harus melalui satu dari dua sitinggil yang disebut Sitinggil lor atau kidul, kemudian halaman-halaman Kemandungan (lor atau kidul) dan Srimeganti (lor atau kidul) yang sebenarnya merupakan tempat-tempat “menanti” sebelum memasuki halaman pusat atau Pelataran. […] Posisi simetris kedua halaman ini amat menarik dengan kedua alun-alun yang seakan-akan “menyelubungi” ruang pusatnya. T.E. Behrend dengan jeli membandingkan struktur tersebut dengan lingkaran-lingkaran konsentris dan kosmologi Hindu-Jawa. Kalau memang demikian, keraton merupakan suatu imago mundi (citra dunia), yaitu seuatu mikrokosmos.[…]


Ciri yang mencolok ialah suasana hiaju lingkungannya, [alam] melingkupi suasana keraton, walaupun tunduk pada persyaratan tata kerajaan. Di (hampir) setiap halaman, ditanami jenis tumbuh-tumbuhan tertentu, yang sering bermanfaat dan mempunyai arti simbolis; […] yang harus disebut juga pohon waringin atau beringin (ficus benjamina) […] Beringin berikut rimbun dedaunnya serta akar gelantungnya merupakan hiasan khas di sekeliling alun-alun lor. Di Yogyakarta jumlahnya mencapai 62, sehingga seluruhnya 64 termasuk dua pohon yang di tengah, jumlah yang sama dengan usia nabi Muhammad pada saat wafatnya…. Kedua beringin yang dipagari tembok dan berada di tengah-tengahlah yang dianggap paling penting dan keramat. Di mata rakyat, kedua pohon beringin (waringin kurung) itu melambangkan persatuan mistik antara rakya dengan rajanya. Di Yogya, ketika Sultan duduk dengan anggunnya di atas singgasana di Sitinggil dan mengarahkan pandangan ke utara, ke arah tugu di kejauhan, pandangannya melintas tepat di antara kedua beringin itu.

Masing-masing beringin ditokohkan dan punya nama diri. Di Yogya ketika Ki Jayadaru mati pada tahun 1925, masyarakat gempar dan sebuah upacara diadakan untuk menguburnya tidak jauh dari tempat berdirinya sampai saat itu. Segera ia diganti dengan Ki Janadaru, pohon yang lebih kecil yang dicari sampai ke Pasundan. Dahulu kala tak seorang pun berani lewat di antara kedua waringin kurung itu. Sampai kira-kira 1830, tempat itu dikhususkan untuk para pengunjuk rasa berpakaian putih yang duduk di situ (pepe) sambil menunggu raja berkenan menerima dan menghadap. Dalam kosakata sehari-hari, “menguliti pohon waringin yang keramat (neres ringin kurung) sama dengan memberontak terhadap kekuasaan raja. Dengan hal-hal itulah kita dapat pahami mengapa partai pemerintah, Golkar, memilih pohon beringin sebagai lambangnya sejak pemilihan umum tahun 1971. Semakin kita memasuki pedalaman keraton, suasana semakin khidmat dan semakin banyak muatan simbolnya. Alun-alun utara masih diliputi keramaian dan kekerasan dunia luar. Di situlah dilangsungkan latihan perang dan pertarungan melawan harimau (rampog). Raja menjalankan peradilan tidak jauh dari sana, di Pagelaran, dan hukuman mati dilaksanakan di depan Sitinggil…