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Lahan Kosong: Wacana Elitis Pendudukan dan Eksploitasi Ruang Urban

Karya Prihatmoko “Moki”, Komik TIPO (Tips dari Tipo), 2011

Oleh: Yoshi Fajar Kresno Murti

Sekurang-kurangnya ada tiga hal yang saling terkait – dan yang sekaligus perlu dijernihkan terlebih dahulu – ketika kita membicarakan posisi lahan kosong di dalam konteks alam urban Indonesia saat ini, lebih khusus lagi di Pulau Jawa. Ketiga hal yang selalu terkait dengan posisi lahan kosong tersebut, yaitu:

1. Asset atau kepemilikan.
Di dalam lansekap alam urban seperti sekarang ini sesungguhnya yang disebut “lahan kosong” atau “tanah kosong” tidaklah benar-benar sepenuhnya ada. Ia selalu terkait dengan (kuasa) kepemilikan tanah. Sebuah asset dari nilai properti dan representasi kuasa modal (ekonomi, politik, dan budaya). Dalam posisinya sebagai asset, atau dengan kuasa kepemilikan, sebuah lahan kosong yang ditemui saat ini nantinya bisa dijadikan sebagai apa saja, bisa dibangun untuk menjalankan diri sebagai fungsi tertentu dan merepresentasikan (kuasa) identitas tertentu.

2. Lokasi atau tempat.
Di dalam lansekap praktik hidup urban sesungguhnya setiap jengkal lahan merupakan sebuah tempat atau lokasi yang akan bisa dianggap sebagai “lahan kosong” (baca: sebagai frontier). Bahkan, meskipun sebuah area sudah dihuni oleh ribuan orang urban, tetap saja para penghuni lahan tersebut bisa dipindah, ditata dan digusur. Lahan kosong bukan hanya perkara fisik yang menunjukkan sebuah area yang “kosong”, tetapi juga perkara pikiran (mind) yang memahami setiap jengkal tanah sebagai tempat atau lokasi yang “kosong”, yang dilihat berjarak dan dari atas. Sebuah tempat atau lokasi lebih banyak dipikir dalam kaitannya dengan fungsi dan nilai strategis ekonomi, yang seringkali justru “mengosongkan” kehidupan yang telah berlangsung lama atasnya.

3. Ruang hidup.
Di dalam lansekap realitas urban, sebuah lahan kosong tidak hanya mengandung potensi konflik, ia selalu mengandung celah negosiasi kepentingan antarpihak, sekaligus representasi dari dinamika praktik negosiasi setiap orang yang berkontestasi (hidup) di kota. Lahan kosong adalah ruang hidup yang dinamis yang bisa menjadi celah dan bisa dimasuki siapapun juga di dalam konteks sesaknya ruang urban.


Dengan posisi lahan kosong dalam kaitannya dengan tiga hal seperti telah dijelaskan di atas, fakta sebuah lahan “kosong” di kota itu bukanlah kosong. Tidak ada, bahkan mustahil. Kosong menurut siapa atau pihak mana? Mungkin bisa disebut dengan pengertian: lahan terlantar. Tetapi terlantar menurut siapa atau pihak mana? Bukankah sekecil apapun fungsi yang dikenakan pada sebuah area “kosong”, tetap saja sebuah area atau teritori yang disebut “terlantar” menjadi bagian dari ekosistem? Bukankah tetap ada tumbuhan dan binatang yang entah pasti hidup di atasnya dan menjadi bagian dari kehidupan?

Sesungguhnya, “lahan kosong” hanya hidup di alam pikiran. Ia merupakan wacana pendudukan manusia atas ruang. Dan, bagaimanakah cara pendudukan atas ruang tersebut dinarasikan di Kota Yogyakarta?

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