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Tanah Kosong: Didefinisikan, Diatur, dan Dipraktikkan dari Masa ke Masa

Oleh : Ahmad Nashih Luthfi

Diskusi mengenai “tanah kosong” memanggil perdebatan panjang tentang beberapa konsep penting dalam kajian (sejarah-hukum) agraria, yakni tentang “domein verklaring” dan “woeste gronden”.

Pada masa kolonial, perdebatan ini berkisar seputar apakah dalam mengatur rakyat Indonesia, digunakan Hukum Barat (berupa Burgerlijk Wetboek) tanpa membedakan antar golongan ataukah adanya pembedaan berupa diakuinya Hukum Bumiputra (baik dalam pengertiannya yang kemudian dimaknai sebagai rekognisi ataupun diskriminasi): unifikasi ataukah plural/yurisdiksi multilevel.

1.    Pemerintah Kolonial menganggap tanah kosong sebagai domein negara
Kemunculan dua konsep di atas tidak terlepas dari kepentingan kolonialisme-industrial. Munculnya deklarasi domein atau pemilikan negara berakar jauh ke belakang dari keberadaan VOC (Vereenigde Ost-Indische Compagnie) dan WIC (West India Company). Memegang mandat tujuh provinsi Belanda Serikat, dua armada dagang itu dalam menjalin hubungan (: penaklukan) dengan kerajaan-lokal diberi kewenangan menerbitkan hak keperdataan tentang kepemilikan tanah di wilayah yang dikuasai. Perjanjian yang mengikat dengan otoritas lokal menempatkan posisi mereka sebagai pemilik teritori dan tanah-tanah yang ada dalam lingkupnya terhisap ke dalam kepemilikan dan menjadi domein VOC/WIC.
Dalam perkembangannya, seiring lahirnya pemerintahan Hindia Belanda-Timur, penerapan doktrin domein dikukuhkan melalui serangkaian peraturan-perundang-undangan (dari tahun 1856 hingga 1870) sampai dengan lahirnya Agrarische Wet 1870 yang semakin memantapkan prinsip tersebut. Prinsip ini berlaku pertama-tama di Jawa-Madura, kemudian daerah luarnya pada tahun 1875. Bunyinya adalah, “landsdomein is alle grond, waarop niet door anderen recht van eigendom wordt bewezen” (domein negara adalah semua tanah yang mana di atasnya tidak dapat dibuktikan adanya hak eigendom oleh seseorang).

Birokrasi kolonial saat itu menafsirkan  secara berbeda-beda atas kata semua tanah:
1)    Tanah yang tidak dapat dibuktikan hak eigendom barat
2)    Tanah yang tidak dapat dibuktikan hak eigendom barat dan hak eigendom agraris
3)    Tanah yang tidak dapat dibuktikan hak eigendom barat dan hak eigendom agraris ataupun hak eigendom timur
4)    Tanah yang tidak dapat dibuktikan hak eigendom barat dan hak eigendom agraris ataupun hak eigendom timur, dan hak penguasaan masyarakat adat

Jauh sebelum itu, penfasiran “secara luas” terhadap tanah-tanah yang dianggap sebagai domain negara berimplikasi pada keberadaan tanah-tanah yang disebut sebagai “woeste gronden”. Saat itu dikenal istilah “de bouwvelden” yakni tanah pertanian meliputi semua tanah yang telah diusahakan oleh seseorang; dan “de woeste gronden” (waste land) yakni tanah yang tidak diusahakan dan kemudian dilekati dengan istilah “tanah liar” sehingga ada dalam domein negara. Terhadap jenis tanah ini, rencana-rencana liberal rezim Willem I mengijinkan pemberian hak kepada perusahaan-perusahaan perkebunan swasta untuk kebutuhan industrialnya, dengan cara sewa jangka pendek atau panjang (pacht). Sebelum rencana ini dijalankan, J. C. Baud pada tahun 1829 melakukan penelitian tentang siapa sebenarnya pemilik atas “tanah liar” itu. Hasil penelitiannya merekomendasikan pelarangan pemberian hak tanah kepada perusahaan perkebunan jikalau tanah-tanah itu telah dibuka oleh seseorang, atau tanah itu termasuk dalam lingkungan desa, sebagai tempat penggembalaan umum ataupun dengan sifat lain.

Baud juga menemukan bahwa hak desa atas “tanah-tanah liar” berbeda di beberapa daerah: Jawa Timur dan Jawa Tengah lebih kuat dibanding yang ditemukannya di Jawa Barat, Aceh, Bali, Madura, dan Bawean. Usulan Baud ini tidak lagi berarti tatkala dideklarasikan “domein verklaring” secara merata di wilayah nusantara, Jawa-Madura pada tahun 1870; Ambon pada 1872; Sumatera pada 1874; Manado pada 1877, yang berimplikasi bahwa semua tanah-tanah liar adalah domein negara dan hak menguasi tanah-tanah tersebut melulu ada di tangan pemerintah.

Di awal abad 20, van Vollenhoven membuka kembali perdebatan tentang domein verklaring tersebut yang merupakan dasar dari konsep teritori negara dan dibangunnya keberadaan perusahaan-perusahaan di atas hak yang diberikan oleh negara, serta penguasaan-pemilikan kawasan kehutanan dan upaya eksploitasinya. Ia menyatakan bahwa prinsip kepemilikan negara itu merupakan bentuk kekerasan, disebutnya sebagai “setengah abad pelanggaran hak” sebab menafikan hak-hak pribumi atas tanah. Menurutnya, tanah liar itu ada dalam hak masyarakat pribumi dengan apa yang disebut sebagai “beschikkingsrecht”.  Beschikkingsrecht ini tidak dikenal dalam hukum barat, BW (Bugerlijk Wetboek). BW hanya mengenal 3 jenis hak: eerfelijk  individueel bezitrecht (hak milik individual yang bisa diwariskan), communaal bezitrecht (hak milik komunal), dan gebruiksaandelen in communaal bezitrecht (hak milik komunal dengan pemakaian bergiliran).   Didefinisikannya “tanah liar” sebagai tanah tak bertuan sehingga dimasukkan sebagai “milik negara” memudahkan tanah itu dipergunakan untuk berbagai peruntukan utamanya mamfasilitasi masukknya modal, dan sebaliknya mengeksklusi (diistilahkan hak mengasingkan tanah) desa atau kemasyarakatan adat untuk mengaksesnya. Padahal pihak terakhir ini di dalam mendefinisikan (klaim) tanah adat tidak mengkategorisasi apakah tanah itu diusahakan atau dalam kondisi terlantar (sementara keterlantaran ini selalu ada ekspektasi untuk sewaktu-waktu dibuka, diusahakan, dan dikukuhkan sebagai hak individu)…

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